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The molecules containing reducing thiol such as glutathione, cysteine, and redox-responsiveness protein in the living organism functions as the anti-oxidant or oxidative responsive molecules. These molecules are recognized as the most important group of molecules that contribute to maintaining redox homeostasis in the living organism. Persulfides and polysufides (Fig.1), which contain sulfane sulfurs, are attracting much attention in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.


Fig.1 Chemical species containing sulfane sulfurs

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is known as a highly toxic gas, is the third most gaseous signal molecule besides nitric oxide (NO), and carbon oxide (CO). It is reported that H2S implicates physiological effects on vasolidation, cytoprotection, insulin secretion, and neurotransmission. Under physiological conditions, approximately 20% of H2S is undissociated and 80% is dissociated to hydrosulfide ions (peak of 7.0). Hydrogen sulfide is present in the living organism at low levels. The sulfide ion appears to be sensitive to alternations in the redox state (Fig. 2). The molecular mechanisms dictating how H2S affects cellular signaling and other physiological events remain insufficiently understood1).


Fig.2 Function of hydrogen sulfide in vivo

According to a recent research, polysulfides are generated from H2S in the brain, stimulating signal transduction in the brain (Fig. 3)2). The recent research shows that sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4) exerts a cellular protection effect against oxidative stress through Keap1/Nrf2 signaling (Fig. 4)3).


Fig.3 Neural transmission by polysulfide

Fig. 4 Cytoprotection by polysulfide

Cysteine persulfide is synthesized from cysteine through two enzymes, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS).It is reported that the high concentration of the cysteine persulfide, and glutathione persulfide are present in the living organism (Fig. 5)4).


Fig.5 Biosynthesis of cysteine persulfide

Persulfide, which contains divalent sulfur atoms bonded to other sulfur atom called sulfane sulfur, plays a different role from hydrogen sulfide. Protein thiols are molecules that act on hydrogen sulfide or per (poly) sulfide. It is necessary to have detailed elucidation of protein thiol to recognize the biological role of the compounds with sulfane sulfur or hydrogen sulfide.


Fig.6 Modification profiles of thiol residues in a protein


References
1) H. Kimura Editor, “Hydrogen Sulfide and its Therapeutic Applications”
2) Y. Kimura, Y. Mikami, K. Osumi, M. Tsugane, J-I. Oka and H. Kimura, “Polysulfides are possible H2S-derived signaling molecules in rat brain”, FASEB. J., 2013, 27, 2451
3) S. Koike, Y. Ogasawara, N. Shibuya, H. Kimura, and K. Ishii, “Polysulfide exerts a protective effect against cytotoxicity caused by t-butylhydroperoxide through Nrf2 signaling in neuroblastoma cells”, FEBS Lett., 2013, 3548
4) T. Ida, T. Sawa, H. Ihara. Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kumagai, M. Suematsu, H. Motohashi, S. Fujii, T. Matsunaga, M. Yamamoto, K. Ono, N. O. Devarie-Baez, M. Xian, J. M Fukuto, and T. Akaike, “Reactive cysteine persulfides and S-polythiolation regulate oxidative stress and redox signaling”, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 2014, 111, 7606

Products 1-17 of 17
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-SulfoBiotics- Biotin-HPDP(WS) solution SB17, SB17-10, - SulfoBiotics - Biotin-HPDP(WS) solution
Item #: SB17 -

Appearance : Colorless to slightly yellow liquid Product: 20mmol/l Biotin-HPDP(WS) Storage Condition: Store at 0-5oCShipping Condition: ambient temperature Product Description Biotin-HPDP(WS) is a novel water-soluble biotin-labeling reagent that is modified from Biotin-HPDP (Product code: B573). Biotin-HPDP is a conventional reagent to introduce a biotin moiety to a sulfhydryl group of protein via reversible disulfide bond. This reagent is useful for affinity-purification of biotinylated...

-SulfoBiotics- GYY4137 sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB06 -

Storage Condition : 0-5℃ Shipping Condition : ambient temperature Purity : ≥95.0% Chemical name: (4-Methoxyphenyl)morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid, morpholine salt M.W.: 376.47  CAS#: 106740-09-4 Product Description: GYY4137 is one of the synthetic hydrogen sulfide donors derived from Lawsson’s reagent. It is water-soluble and releases H2S very slowly by hydrolysis in aqueous solutions. GYY4137 has shown distinct cellular effects such as anti-hypertensive,...

-SulfoBiotics- H2S donor 5a sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB07 -

Storage Condition : 0-5℃ Shipping Condition : ambient temperature Purity : ≥98.0% Chemical name: N-(Benzoylthio)benzamide M.W.: 257.31 CAS#: 134861-13-5 Product Description: Hydrogen sulfide donor 5a releases H2S upon reaction with reducing agents containing sulfhydryl groups such as cysteine and reduced glutathione. The donor is stable in aqueous solutions, whereas it decomposes and releases H2S in biological samples containing thiols such as blood, tissues or...

-SulfoBiotics- H2S donor 8l sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB08 -

Storage Condition : 0-5℃ Shipping Condition : ambient temperature Purity : ≥90.0% Chemical name: N-Butyl-N2-acetyl-S-acetylsulfanyl-DL-penicillamine amideM.W.: 320.47CAS#: 1430811-09-8 Product Description: Thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donor 8 ℓ and 8оprepared from penicillamine release H2S upon reaction with reducing agents containing sulfhydryl groups such as cysteine and reduced glutathione in a similar manner to 5 a. The H2S releasing rates depend on...

-SulfoBiotics- H2S donor 8o sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB09 -

Storage Condition : 0-5℃ Shipping Condition : ambient temperature Purity : ≥95.0% Chemical name: N-Butyl-N2-acetyl-S-pivaloylsulfanyl-DL-penicillamine amideM.W.: 362.55CAS#: 1430811-12-3 Product Description: Thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donor 8 ℓ and 8оprepared from penicillamine release H2S upon reaction with reducing agents containing sulfhydryl groups such as cysteine and reduced glutathione in a similar manner to 5 a. The H2S releasing rates depend on...

-SulfoBiotics- HSip-1 SB21, SB21-10, -SulfoBiotics- PEG-PCMal, -SulfoBiotics- HSip-1
Item #: SB21 -

Chemical Name:Copper(2+), [N-(3',6'-Dihydroxy-3-oxospiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-5-yl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-acetamide-κN1,κN4,κN7,κN10]-Coordination Compound Appearance: Brown to Greenish brown solid Purity: ≧ 90.0 % MW:849.19 Storage Condition: Store in a cool dark place. Shipping Condition: Ambient temperature Product Description: It has been recognized that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has an important role as a physiological active substance for vasodilation,...

-SulfoBiotics- HSip-1 DA hydrogen sulfide, sulfane sulfer, sodium polysulfides, Na2S2, Na2S3, Na2S4
Item #: SB22 -

Chemical Name: Copper(2+), [N-(3',6'-bis(acetyloxy)-3-oxospiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-5-yl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-acetamide-κN1,κN4,κN7,κN10]-Coordination Compound Appearance: Blue solid Purity: ≧ 90.0 % MW:933.26 Storage Condition: Store at 0-5℃ Shipping Condition: Ambient temperature Product Description: It has been recognized that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has an important role as a physiological active substance for vasodilation, cytoprotection, and modulation of...

-SulfoBiotics- PEG-PCMal SB21, SB21-10, -SulfoBiotics- PEG-PCMal
Item #: SB20 -

Appearance : Slightly yellow to pale yellowish brown powder or solid MW: 2736.19 Storage Condition: Store at 0-5oC Shipping Condition: ambient temperature Product Description Modification of protein thiols is one of the most important post-translational modifications and it occurs according to the redox states in cells. It has recently been revealed that the modifications of thiol groups control cellular functions such as transcription, protein expression, cell death, etc. Therefore, detection...

-SulfoBiotics- Protein Redox State Monitoring Kit chaperon, transcription factor, transcription modulation, endoplasmic reticulum, ER, collagen, stress response protein, ATP, heat shock, heat shock protein, HSP, folding, membrane protein, amyloidosis, mitochondria, intercellular transport, redox protein, EMBO, Redox regulation, Redox signaling, Johannes Herrmann, Joris Messens, Haike Antelmann, Elias Arner, Bob Buchanan, Agnieszka Chacinska, Tobias Dick, Lars Ellgaard, Rudi Glockshuber, Chris Hamilton, Marianne Koritzinsky, Julia Krasensky, Peter Nagy, Leslie Poole, Rafael Radi, Sue Goo Rhee, Elizabeth Veal
Item #: SB11 -

Storage Condition: 0-5°CShipping Condition: Ambient temperatureProduct Description:Protein thiol is a major redox signaling in the cellular processes. Modification of protein thiol by oxidative stress associates with the redox state in the cells. The approach of this kit is detecting the number of thiol residues accurately in order to study the redox state in oxidative stress environment.Fig. 1 Redox States of Thiol group(s) in Protein Mechanism of Thiol Modification with Protein-SHifter:Fig....

-SulfoBiotics- Protein Redox State Monitoring Kit Plus chaperon, transcription factor, transcription modulation, endoplasmic reticulum, ER, collagen, stress response protein, ATP, heat shock, heat shock protein, HSP, folding, membrane protein, amyloidosis, mitochondria, intercellular transport, redox protein, EMBO, Redox regulation, Redox signaling, Johannes Herrmann, Joris Messens, Haike Antelmann, Elias Arner, Bob Buchanan, Agnieszka Chacinska, Tobias Dick, Lars Ellgaard, Rudi Glockshuber, Chris Hamilton, Marianne Koritzinsky, Julia Krasensky, Peter Nagy, Leslie Poole, Rafael Radi, Sue Goo Rhee, Elizabeth Veal
Item #: SB12 -

Storage Condition: 0-5°CShipping Condition: Ambient temperatureProduct Description: Protein thiol is a major redox signaling in the cellular processes. Modification of protein thiol by oxidative stress associate with the redox state in the cells. The approach of this kit is detecting the number of thiol residues accurately in order to study the redox state in oxidative stress environment. Fig. 1 Redox States of Thiol group(s) in Protein Mechanism of Thiol Modification with Protein-SHifter:...

-SulfoBiotics- Protein S-Nitrosylation Monitoring Kit SB14, SB141-10, -SulfoBiotics- Protein S-Nitrosylation Monitoring Kit
Item #: SB14 -

Storage Condition : Store at 0-5oC Product Description Modification of protein thiol is one of the most important post-translational modifications and it occurs depending on the redox state in cells. Protein S-nitrosylation is NO (nitric oxide)-dependent modification of protein thiols and is crucial for regulation of cellular functions such as transcription, protein expression, and signal transduction. -SulfoBiotics- Protein S-Nitrosylation Monitoring Kit allows to detect S-nitrosylated...

-SulfoBiotics- Sodium disulfide (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>) sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB02 -

Storage Condition : -20℃, light and moisture sensitiveShipping Condition : blue icePurity : ≥90.0%Chemical name: Sodium disulfide, anhydrous M.W.: 110.11 CAS#: 22868-13-9 Product Description: Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) are sulfane sulfur donors which have simple structures, and exist as hydrogen polysulfides in an aqueous solution depending on pH.        Fig. 1 Structures of Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) and the pKa values Data: ...

-SulfoBiotics- Sodium Polysulfide Set sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB13 -

Storage Condition : -20℃, light and moisture sensitiveShipping Condition : blue ice Product Contents: Sodium disulfide (Na2S2) : 1 x 100 mg Sodium trisulfide (Na2S3): 1 x 100 mgSodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4): 1 x 100 mg Product Description: -SulfoBiotics- Sodium polysulfide set is the associated type of Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) supplied with 100 mg each of sodium disulfide (Na2S2), sodium trisulfide (Na2S3), sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4).       ...

-SulfoBiotics- Sodium sulfide (Na<sub>2</sub>S)
Item #: SB01 -

Storage Condition :  0-5℃,moisture sensitiveShipping Condition : ambientPurity : ≥97.0%Chemical name: Sodium sulfide  M.W.: 78.04 CAS#: 1313-82-2 Product Description: It has been recognized that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has an important role as a physiological active substance for vasodilation, cytoprotection, and modulation of insulin secretion. H2S is considered as a gaseous molecule such as NO and CO. However, around 80% of the total sulfide exists as hydrogen...

-SulfoBiotics- Sodium tetrasulfide (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>4</sub>) sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB04 -

Storage Condition : -20℃, light and moisture sensitiveShipping Condition : blue icePurity : ≥90.0%Chemical name: Sodium tetrasulfide, anhydrous M.W.: 174.22CAS#: 12034-39-8 Product Description: Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) are sulfane sulfur donors which have simple structures, and exist as hydrogen polysulfides in an aqueous solution depending on pH.        Fig. 1 Structures of Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) and the pKa values Data: ...

-SulfoBiotics- Sodium trisulfide (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>3</sub>) sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB03 -

Storage Condition : -20℃, light and moisture sensitiveShipping Condition : blue icePurity : ≥90.0%Chemical name: Sodium trisulfide, anhydrous M.W.: 142.16CAS#: 37488-76-9 Product Description: Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) are sulfane sulfur donors which have simple structures, and exist as hydrogen polysulfides in an aqueous solution depending on pH.        Fig. 1 Structures of Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn) and the pKa values Data:   ...

-SulfoBiotics- SSP4 sulfur biology, H2S, Sulfane Sulfur, persulfide, polysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, s-sulfhydration, anti-oxidant, glutathione, ROS, oxidative stress
Item #: SB10 -

Storage Condition : -20℃, protect from lightShipping Condition : Blue IcePurity : ≥90.0% (HPLC)Chemical name: 3',6'-Di(O-thiosalicyl)fluorescein M.W.: 604.65CAS#: N/A Product Description: SSP4 (Sulfane Sulfur Probe 4) is a novel fluorescent probe to detect sulfane sulfurs selectively. SSP4 itself is non-fluorescent, but it emits strong green fluorescence when it reacts with sulfane sulfurs. Thus, SSP4 enables high sensitive fluorescence detection and imaging...