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DAPRed - Autophagy Detection

Item # Unit Size

For Research Use Only Products

Content: 5 nmol x 1
Storage Condition: Store at 0-5 oC and protect from light
Shipping Condition: Ambient Temperature

Detection Principle
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system, where dysfunctional proteins and organelles are degraded. In this process, aggregated dysfunctional proteins are surrounded by the double membrane to form an autophagosome.
The small fluorescent molecule DAPRed is used to be detect autophagosomes and autolysosomes. The mechanism has been suggested to be that the dye is incorporated into the autophagosome during double-membrane formation via structural features, and then emits fluorescence under hydrophobic conditions. The utility of DAPRed is conferred by its molecular properties: it is permeable to cells, has no requirement for transfection, and enables live cell imaging with fluorescence microscopy. For monitoring autolysosomes, DALGreen (D675) is recommend because it enables the detection of phagosome-lysosome fusion.

Simple Procedure: Just Add the Reagent
Gene transfection is not necessary. You only need to add the reagent to your cell sample, and you can get a fluorescent image.

Co-staining of DAPRed and DALGreen
HeLa cells were stained with DAPRed, which is a dye-stained autophagosome, and DALGreen, which is a dye-stained autolysosome. Autophagy was then induced by starvation.

The fluorescence of DAPRed and DALGreen was stronger in starved HeLa cell culture.
Detection condition:

DAPRed: Ex. 561 nm/Em. 600-700 nm
DALGreen: Ex. 488 nm/Em. 500-563 nm
Scale bar: 20 μm

Autophagy Induction:
After staining with DAPred and DALGreen, HeLa cell was incubated with culture medium or without amino acid-free medium for 5 hours.

DAPGreen Excitation/Emission

Related Product Information

No. Sample Instrument Reference(Link)
1) Cell
X. Chen, X. Yan, J. Liu and L. Zhang, "Chaiqi decoction ameliorates vascular endothelial injury in metabolic syndrome by upregulating autophagy.", Am. J. Transl. Res., 2020,12(9), 4902.
2) Cell
H. Fang , S. Geng, M. Hao, Q. Chen, M. Liu, C. Liu, Z. Tian, C. Wang, T. Takebe, J-L Guan, Y. Chen, Z. Guo, W. He and J. Diao, "Simultaneous Zn2+ tracking in multiple organelles using super-resolution morphology-correlated organelle identification in living cells", Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1), 109. 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.105.
3) Cell
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H. Sun, R. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Mei and X. Liu , "USP11 induce resistance to 5-Fluorouracil in Colorectal Cancer through activating autophagy by stabilizing VCP", J Cancer , 2021, 12(8), 2317.
4) Cell
M. Yagi, T. Toshima, R. Amamoto, Y. Do, H. Hirai, D. Setoyama, D. Kang and T. Uchiumi, "Mitochondrial translation deficiency impairs NAD+-mediated lysosomal acidification", EMBO J, 2021, doi:10.15252/embj.2020105268.
5) Cell
Chang-ki Oh, Nima Dolatabadi, Piotr Cieplak, Maria T. Diaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat, John P. Nolan, Tomohiro Nakamura and Stuart A. Lipton, "S-Nitrosylation of p62 Inhibits Autophagic Flux to Promote α-Synuclein Secretion and Spread in Parkinson’s Disease and Lewy Body Dementia", J. Neurosci., 2022, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1508-21.2022.